Friday, September 30, 2022

Deploying a containerized Flask app to Azure Container Apps

I've used Docker for many years as a local development environment (first for Khan Academy and then Berkeley CS61A), but until this week, I'd never personally made a Docker image or deployed one to production.

One of our offerings at Microsoft is Azure Container Apps, a way to run Docker containers in the cloud, which gives me a great excuse to get my feet wet in the world of containerization. 🐳

To share what I've learnt, I'll walkthrough the process of containerizing a Flask app and running it on Azure.

First, some Docker jargon:

  • A Docker image is a multi-layered environment that is exactly the environment your app thrives in, such as a Linux OS with Python 3.9 and Flask installed. You can also think of an image as a snapshot or a template.
  • A Docker container is an instance of an image, which could run locally on your machine or in the cloud.
  • A registry is a place to host images. There are cloud hosted registries like DockerHub and Azure Container Registry. You can pull images down from those registries, or push images up to them.

These are the high-level steps:

  1. Build an image of the Flask application locally and confirm it works when containerized.
  2. Push the image to the Azure Container Registry.
  3. Run an Azure Container App for that image.

Build image of Flask app

I started from a very simple app, the Flask app used by other Azure tutorials:

Flask's development server is not suitable for production, so I brought in the Gunicorn server as a requirement in requirements.txt:


I put Gunicorn settings in

bind = ""
workers = 4
threads = 4
timeout = 120

Then I added this Dockerfile file in the root:

# syntax=docker/dockerfile:1
# syntax=docker/dockerfile:1

FROM python:3.9.13


COPY requirements.txt .

RUN pip3 install -r requirements.txt

COPY . .


ENTRYPOINT ["gunicorn", "-c", "", "app:app"]

That file tells Docker to start from a base image which has python 3.9.13 installed, create a /code directory, install the package requirements, copy the code into the directory, and then finally use Gunicorn run the Flask application..

I also added a .dockerignore file to make sure Docker doesn't copy over unneeded files:


You can download the full code from this repository.

I built a Docker image using the "Build image" option from the VS Code Docker extension. However, it can also be built from the command line:

docker build --tag flask-demo .

Now that the image is built, I can run a container using it:

docker run -d -p 5000:5000 flask-demo

The Flask default port is 5000, so the run command must specify that for the connections to work.

Push image to registry

I followed this tutorial to push an image to the registry, with some customizations.

I created a resource group:

az group create --name flask-container-apps --location eastus

Then I created a registry using a unique name and logged in to that registry:

az acr create --resource-group flask-container-apps \
  --name pamelascontainerregistry --sku Basic

az acr login --name pamelascontainerregistry

Now comes the tricky part: pushing an image to that repository. I am working on a Mac with an M1 (ARM 64) chip, but Azure Container Apps (and other cloud-hosted container runners) expect images to be built for an Intel (AMD 64) chip. That means I can't just push the image that I built in the earlier step, I actually have to build specifically for AMD 64 and push that image.

One way to do that is with the docker buildx command, specifying the target architecture and target registry location:

docker buildx build --push --platform linux/amd64 \
    -t .

However, a much faster way to do it is with the az acr build command, which uploads the code to cloud and builds it there:

az acr build --platform linux/amd64 \
    -t \
    -r pamelascontainerregistry .

⏱ The `docker buildx` command took ~ 10 minutes, whereas the `az acr build` command took only a minute. Nice!

Run Azure Container App

Now that I have an image uploaded to a registry, I can create a container app for that image. I followed this tutorial.

I upgraded the extension and registered the necessary providers:

az extension add --name containerapp --upgrade
az provider register --namespace Microsoft.App
az provider register --namespace Microsoft.OperationalInsights

⏱ That takes a few minutes.

Then I created the resource group and container app environment:

az group create --name flask-container-apps -location canadacentral

az containerapp env create --name flask-container-environment \
    --resource-group flask-container-apps --location canadacentral

Next, I generated credentials so that the command line tool could log in to my registry:

az acr credential show --name pamelascontainerregistry

Finally, I created the container app:

az containerapp create --name my-container-app \
    --resource-group flask-container-apps \
    --image \
    --environment flask-container-environment \
    --registry-server \
    --register-username pamelascontainerregistry \
    --registry-password $REGISTRY_PASSWORD \
    --ingress external \
    --target-port 5000

Once that deployed, I followed the URL from the Azure portal to view the website in the browser and verified it was all working. 🎉 Woot!

If I make any Flask code updates, all I need to do is re-build the image and tell the container app to update:

az acr build --platform linux/amd64 \
    -t \
    -r pamelascontainerregistry .

az containerapp update --name my-container-app \
  --resource-group my-container-apps \

⏱ Those commands are fairly fast, about 30 seconds each.

🐳 Now I'm off to containerize more apps!

Thursday, September 22, 2022

Returning an image from an Azure Function App in Python

I wrote a tiny icon-writer package this week that uses pillow to generate simple text-only icons, and used that to generate images to replace the fancy logo'd icons on my Mac OS X dock.

After generating the icons on my own machine, I wanted to make a website that others could use to generate them, so I started off by writing an Azure Function App.

I considered a few options for what the function could return:

  1. It could store the image in an Azure Storage container and return the URL to the created image.
  2. It could return a base-64 encoded string, and I could serve that in a webpage img tag using a data URI.
  3. It could return an actual binary image with the mime-type set appropriately, to be used directly as the src of the img.

I went for option three, since I liked the idea of being able to test the API in the browser and instantly see an image, plus I wanted to make sure it could be done.

Here's the relevant code in the function:

img = icon_writer.write_icon(text, size=size, bgcolor=bgcolor, fontcolor=fontcolor)
img_byte_arr = io.BytesIO(), format='PNG')
img_byte_arr = img_byte_arr.getvalue()
return func.HttpResponse(img_byte_arr, mimetype='image/png')

It creates a new pillow Image using my write_icon function and saves that into a BytesIO object as a PNG. It converts that object into a bytes array using BytesIO.getvalue(). Finally, it returns an HttpResponse with the bytes array as the body and a mime-type of 'image/png'.

See the full function code on Github.

Then I can call the function in a webpage just like this:

const image = document.createElement("img");
image.src = `${params}`;

That src attribute actually uses an API Management service URL, which protects the Funtions App endpoint with a CORS policy.

You can try the website here.

Wednesday, September 21, 2022

Preparing a Django app for deployment on Azure App Service

I recently went through the process of creating a simple Django app and deploying it to Azure App Service, and discovered I had to make several changes to get the app working in a production environment. Many of those changes are common across production environments and described in the Django deployment checklist, but a few details are Azure-specific.

Use environment variables

A best practice is to store settings in environment variables, especially sensitive settings like database authentication details. You can set environment variables locally with export on the command-line, but a more repeatable local strategy is to put them in a file and load them from that file using the python-dotenv package.

First, add python-dotenv to your requirements.txt. Here's what mine looked like:


Then create a .env file with environment variables and their local settings:


Note that it's completely fine for this file to get checked in, since these are only the local values, and your production DB should definitely have a different password than your local DB. 😬

Now adjust your current to use these environment variables (if it wasn't already):

    "default": {
        "ENGINE": "django.db.backends.postgresql_psycopg2",
        'NAME': os.environ['DBNAME'],
        'HOST': os.environ['DBHOST'],
        'USER': os.environ['DBUSER'],
        'PASSWORD': os.environ['DBPASS']

To make sure those environment variables are actually loaded in when running locally, you need to edit Only the local environment should get its variables from that file, so add a check to see if 'WEBSITE_HOSTNAME' is a current environment variable. That variable gets set by the Azure build system when it deploys an app, so it will always be set on production and it should not get set locally.

import os
import sys

from dotenv import load_dotenv

def main():
    """Run administrative tasks."""
    is_prod = 'WEBSITE_HOSTNAME' in os.environ
    if not is_prod:
        print("Loading environment variables from .env file")

        from import execute_from_command_line
    except ImportError as exc:
        raise ImportError(
            "Couldn't import Django. Are you sure it's installed and "
            "available on your PYTHONPATH environment variable? Did you "
            "forget to activate a virtual environment?"
        ) from exc

if __name__ == '__main__':

Use production settings

After those changes, the app should run fine locally, but it's not ready for production. There are a number of settings that should be different in production mode, such as DEBUG, SECRET_KEY,ALLOWED_HOSTS, CSRF_TRUSTED_ORIGINS, and DATABASES.

A typical way to customize the settings for production is to add a new file that imports all the previous settings and overrides only the handful needed for production. Here's what my looks like:

from .settings import *
import os

DEBUG = False
SECRET_KEY = os.environ['SECRET_KEY']

# Configure the domain name using the environment variable
# that Azure automatically creates for us.
CSRF_TRUSTED_ORIGINS = ['https://'+ os.environ['WEBSITE_HOSTNAME']] 

    'default': {
        'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.postgresql',
        'NAME': os.environ['DBNAME'],
        # DBHOST is only the server name, not the full URL
        'HOST': os.environ['DBHOST'] + "",
        'USER': os.environ['DBUSER'],
        'PASSWORD': os.environ['DBPASS']

That file also uses the 'WEBSITE_HOSTNAME' environment variable, this time for setting the values of 'ALLOWED_HOSTS' and 'CSRF_TRUSTED_ORIGINS'.

Now you need to make sure the production settings get used when the app is running in a production environment.

First modify, since Azure uses WSGI to serve Django applications.

from django.core.wsgi import get_wsgi_application

is_prod = 'WEBSITE_HOSTNAME' in os.environ
settings_module = 'quizsite.production' if is_prod else 'quizsite.settings'
os.environ.setdefault("DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE", settings_module)

application = get_wsgi_application()

You also need to modify since Azure calls it to run Django commands on the production server, like collectstatic.

import os
import sys

from dotenv import load_dotenv

def main():
    is_prod = 'WEBSITE_HOSTNAME' in os.environ
    if not is_prod:
        print("Loading environment variables from .env file")

    settings_module = "quizsite.production" if is_prod else 'quizsite.settings'
    os.environ.setdefault('DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE', settings_module)
        from import execute_from_command_line
    except ImportError as exc:
        raise ImportError(
            "Couldn't import Django. Are you sure it's installed and "
            "available on your PYTHONPATH environment variable? Did you "
            "forget to activate a virtual environment?"
        ) from exc

if __name__ == '__main__':


Your app should be ready for deployment, code-wise. You can follow the instructions in a tutorial like Deploy a Python web app with PostgreSQL in Azure, but with your own app instead of the sample app. That tutorial includes instructions for setting environment variables on production, using either the VS Code extension or the Azure portal.

You may decide to store the SECRET_KEY value inside the Azure Key vault and retrieve it from there instead, following this KeyVault tutorial.

If you want to see all the recommended changes in context, check out the repository for my sample app .

Tuesday, September 20, 2022

How I setup a Python project

As I prepare for my new role at Microsoft Cloud Advocacy for Python, I've been spinning up a bunch of Python projects over the last few months and learning about tools to improve my development workflow. I'm sharing my project setup process in this post to help other developers start new Python projects and to find out how my process can improve.

My setup process always takes place in a Mac OS X environment, but much of this should be the same across operating systems.

Setup IDE

I use vim when editing single files, but when working on multi-file projects I much prefer VS Code. It's fast, it's got great built-in capabilities, and the extensions are incredibly helpful for domain specific tasks.

If it's my first time on a machine, then I need to:

Create folder

Now I make a folder for my project, either via the command line:

mkdir my-python-project 

Or in VS Code, by selecting File > Open Folder … and clicking New Folder in the window that pops up.

Initialize version control

I always use Git for version control in my projects for local source code history, and then use Github to backup the code to the cloud.

First I create the local Git repository:

git init

Then I create a new Github repo and add it as a remote for my local repo:

git remote add origin 

Finally I create a .gitignore file to tell Git what files/folders to exclude from source control. I'll start it off with a single line to ignore any __pycache__ folders created automatically by the interpreter.


You can learn more on Git/Github from this Github tutorial.

Setup virtual environment

A virtual environment makes it easy to install the dependencies of one Python project without worrying about conflict with dependencies of other projects. It is possible to develop in Python outside of a virtual environment (in the global environment of your system), but that has bitten me so many times that I now always jump into a virtual environment.

Python 3 has built-in support for virtual environments using the venv module. I run this command to create a virtual environment:

python3 -m venv .venv

That creates the environment in the .venv folder, so that's where all the project dependencies will get installed. You can name that folder something else, but .venv or venv are the most standard.

Next I need to actually start the virtual environment, to make sure my terminal is issuing all commands from inside it:

source .venv/bin/activate 

I don't want to check the project's third-party dependencies into my own Git repo, however, both because that's a lot of files to track and because that code should stay in the third-party repos, so I add another line to the .gitignore file:


Install requirements

I always install project dependencies with pip, which downloads them from the Python package index at However, it's best practice to declare dependencies in a requirements.txt file and install from that file, so that anyone else setting up the project will end up with the same dependencies.

I create the requirements.txt file and seed it with any packages I know I need:


It's also possible to specify the version of each package, but I typically use the latest stable version.

Once that file exists, I ask pip to install everything in it:

pip install -r requirements.txt 

Coding time!

This might be the point where I start writing code, or I may wait until I've done the full setup.

Regardless of when I start code writing, this is a typical folder layout for a non-web Python project:

I have one main module, the entry point, which imports functions or classes from helper modules. Then I put all my tests in a folder, with one test file per module.

At this point, I should be able to actually run the code I've written:


I don't have to worry about distinguishing between the python command vs. python3 command anymore, as I'm running that command inside my virtual environment, and it will always use the version of Python that initialized it.

Install development requirements

Our code might work, but is it good code?

Fortunately, there are many tools in the Python ecosystem to help us write better code with a consistent code style.

My favorite tools are all third-party packages, so they need to be installed before I can use them. A best practice is to list them in a separate file, like requirements-dev.txt, to make a distinction between the packages needed for production and the additional packages needed for local development.

I create requirements-dev.txt and list the tool dependencies:

-r requirements.txt 

*I only include version numbers for the tools here so that you can see how that's specified.

The first line tells pip to also install everything in requirements.txt. By including that line, I can now run this single command to install both the prod and dev dependencies:

pip install -r requirements-dev.txt 

Run linter

A linter is a tool that looks for "lint" in your code: common coding errors or style issues. The most commonly used Python linter is flake8 which is actually a wrapper around three smaller tools. It's possible to just use flake8 out of the box with its default configuration, but many developers (including myself) like to customize it.

I add a .flake8 file in the project root with some initial options:

ignore = D203
max-complexity = 10
max-line-length = 100
exclude = .venv
count = True
statistics = True
show_source = True
  • The ignore option tells it what error codes to ignore (that particular one is just a whitespace style nit).
  • The max-complexity option tells it how complex a nested conditional can be (I.e. how many levels).
  • The max-line-length option specifies the maximum number of characters for each line (a very personal decision!).
  • The exclude option tells it not to scan the .venv folder, since we don't want to know about issues in the third-party dependencies. Hopefully they're running a linter themselves!
  • The count option says we want to see the number of errors, while statistics say we also want a breakdown, and then show_source makes it show the code responsible for any errors.

Now I can run flake8. I actually run it twice, for different levels of errors, first checking for the most serious issues:

flake8 . --select=E9,F63,F7,F82 

The error code E9 comes from the wrapped pycodestyle library error codes and refers to any parse errors (IndentationError/SyntaxError) or detectable IO errors.

The other error codes are from the wrapped pyflakes library: F63 checks for common issues with comparison operators, F7 covers misplaced statements, and F82 looks for undefined names.

Now I run it again, this time checking for all issues, where the rest is more likely to be style issues. The style violations are based on the official PEP 8 style guide, so they are fairly agreed upon in the Python community.

flake8 . 

If I see style issues at this point, I might fix them or I m ight wait until I introduce the next tool which can autofix many style issues for me. 😀

Tool configuration

The Python community recently decided on a best practice for tool configuration: putting all options for all tools inside a single file, pyproject.toml. Unfortunately, flake8 doesn't yet follow that practice, but the rest of my tools do, so I now create an empty pyproject.toml in my root folder.

Run formatter

A formatter is a tool that will reformat code according to its own standards and your configured options. The most popular formatter is black, which is PEP 8 compliant and highly opinionated.

I configure black by adding this section to pyproject.toml:

line-length = 100 
target-version = ['py39'] 

Those options tell black that I'd like code lines to be no longer than 100 characters and that I'm writing code in Python 3.9.

Now, before I run black for the first time, I like to make sure all my code is committed, so that I can easily see the effect of black. I might also run it in --check mode first, to make sure it doesn't make any undessiirable changes or edit unexpected files:

black --verbose --check . tests 

Sometimes I discover I need to explicitly exclude some Python files from black's formatting rampage. In that case, I add an exclude option to pyproject.toml:

extend-exclude = ''' 

If all looks good, I'll run black for real:

black --verbose . tests/ 

Run tests

The built-in testing framework for Python is unittest, but another popular framework is pytest. That's my new preferred framework.

I configure that by adding another section to pyproject.toml:

addopts = "-ra --cov"
testpaths = ["tests"] 
pythonpath = ['.']

The addopts option adds arguments to the pytest command, --ra for displaying extra test summary info and --cov for running while running tests. That --cov option works only because I coverage and pytest-cov earlier. The testpaths option tells pytest where to find the tests, and pythonpath helps tests figure out where to import the modules from.

Now I can run all the tests:


That will show me which tests passed or failed. If I want to see the coverage report, I can run:

coverage report

Install pre-commit hook

All of those tools are great, but it's way too easy to forget to run them. That's why pre-commit hooks are handy; they'll run commands before allowing a git commit to go through.

I like to use the pre-commit framework to set up hooks as it supports a wide range of commands across multiple languages (and many of my projects are multi-language, like Python + JS).

I create a .pre-commit-config.yaml file to describe my desired hooks:

-   repo:
    rev: v2.3.0
    -   id: check-yaml
    -   id: end-of-file-fixer
    -   id: trailing-whitespace
-   repo:
    rev: 22.3.0
    -   id: black
        args: ['--config=./pyproject.toml']
-   repo:
    rev: 4.0.1
    -   id: flake8
        exclude: '.venv/'
        args: ['--config=.flake8']

Those hooks run black, flake8, as well as some generally useful checks for YAML syntax and trailing whitespace issues.

Now I have to actually install the hooks, which will update my local Git configuration:

pre-commit install

I can do a test commit now to see if it spots any issues. Most likely I'll have already seen any issues in earlier commits, but it's good to make sure the hooks are run.

You might have noticed that I did not run any tests in the pre-commit hooks. That's because tests can often take a number of minutes to run, and for many repositories, running tests on every commit would significantly slow down development and discouraging frequent commits. However, I will run tests using the next tool.

Setup Github action

Using Github actions, I can make sure certain commands are always run upon updates to the Github repo.

To configure an action, I create a python.yaml file inside a newly created .github/workflows folder and describe the desired action following their format:

name: Python checks
on: [push, pull_request]

    runs-on: ubuntu-latest
        - uses: actions/checkout@v3
        - name: Set up Python 3
          uses: actions/setup-python@v3
            python-version: 3.9
        - name: Install dependencies
          run: |
            python -m pip install --upgrade pip
            pip install -r requirements-dev.txt
        - name: Lint with flake8
          run: |
            # stop the build if there are Python syntax errors or undefined names
            flake8 . --select=E9,F63,F7,F82
            # exit-zero treats all errors as warnings.
            flake8 . --exit-zero
        - name: Check formatting with black
          uses: psf/black@stable
            src: ". tests/"
            options: "--check --verbose"
        - name: Run unit tests
          run: |

The on: [push, pull_request] tells Github to run the action whenever code is pushed to any branch or whenever pull requests are opened. The jobs section describes just one job, "build", which runs on an Ubuntu box with Python 3.9 installed, installs my project requirements, runs flake8, runs black, and finally, runs pytest.

All together now

You can see my sample repository here:

You can also see how I've used this sort of setup in apps which involve other dependencies as well, like:

Let me know what your project setup is like and if you have suggestions for improving my workflow. I'm always learning! 😀

Friday, August 12, 2022

CS content inclusivity guide

First of all, I am not an expert in diversity and inclusion. However, I have tried over time to learn more about how to improve my Computer Science curriculum to be more inclusive, and I have noticed what makes me personally feel excluded from other CS curriculum. I wrote this guide based on my experiences at Khan Academy (online programming courses) and UC Berkeley (CS 61A, 169A), and have shared it privately with UC Berkeley TAs and other CS teachers. I'm now sharing it publicly in case it's helpful for other CS educators.

Once again, I am not an expert, so I encourage everyone interested in inclusive CS content to learn more from others, like at the CSTA or SIGCSE conferences.

Avoid sensitive topics

There are many topics which can trigger emotional reactions in people. If you are specifically teaching those topics, then you can present those topics with the appropriate context and create a space where students can process their reactions. However, if a sensitive topic just happens to be the theme of a problem but isn't necessary for the skill being assessed, then it is usually a good idea to avoid the topic entirely and pick a different theme.

Common sensitive topics

Violence/Death. Unnecessary violence / military violence is often the theme of video games and frequently makes it into CS assignments as well. Some specific examples:

  • Hangman: A classic game but pretty horrific, especially when you learn about America's recent history of hanging men. You can instead call the same type of game "Word Guesser", and show a visualization like eating a cupcake.
  • Free Bacon: A rule in the 61A Hog game (which has since been renamed). Since bacon is derived from dead pigs, this can be considered an instance of death. Non-pork eating students may find it strange to implement such a function.
  • Ants vs. SomeBees: A 61A game where ants kill bees (which isn't scientifically accurate) and which includes function names like death_callback and ants like the TankAnt. This project still exists, but the hope is to either replace it or provide alternative projects of equal difficulty (since many students don't mind insect destruction).

Current events. A lot of current events are emotionally charged for the people affected by them- wildfires, pandemics, protests, political elections. Some specific examples:

  • People's Park. CS61A has an old midterm review question about People's Park, a park in Berkeley that is the subject of controversary. The question did not specifically bring up the history and the current protests around it, but students could still find it distracting, especially on an exam, since it could bring up a lot of their feelings about the issues.
  • Swain v. Alabama: An example used in the Data 8 textbook of bias in the jury selection for a Black man on trial. The example wasn't presented with the full historical context behind the conviction, and could easily lead to stereotyping and stereotype threat. It is difficult to bring in an isolated example of racism if you haven't fully delved into the racist history leading to that event.

Memes. Memes can be funny, but the humor can often be at the expense of someone or some group of people. For example:

  • "Karen": A 61A exam review question initially used a function named karen in an environment diagram problem about anti-maskers, based on the "karen" meme. We actually have students named Karen in our class, and I would hate for them to feel made fun of or singled out due to sharing a name with the meme. The function has since been renamed.

Harry Potter. This is a common enough theme that it's worth addressing specifically. Lots of people seem to love Harry Potter and injecting HP references, but there are two problems:

  • The author's political views: JK Rowling has publicly stated many views that are transphobic, so seeing Harry Potter references can remind students of those views and threaten their feeling of belonging. CS61A used to have Potter references in an OOP assignment but changed it in 2021.
  • Assumed cultural content: Not everyone has seen Harry Potter, so assuming that everyone has can alienate those who haven't, since they aren't in on all the references. Khan Academy used to hold a Harry Potter themed company hackathon for many years, and I was always perplexed by the many references throughout the week (like the houses), but they finally changed the theme in 2020.

Historical figures. Quite a few of the inventors of the past (and even the present) have held views that are racist, sexist, or discriminatory in some fashion. If you do mention a specific historical figure in the content (either as the theme or because they invented a theory), first research their views and see if they have publicly espoused discriminatory views. You might then decide to remove the mention of them, de-emphasize them (versus their invention), or acknowledge the impact of their views. For example, Isaac Newton came up with theories in support of scientific racism, so physics departments have started to call his physics laws the "fundamental laws of physics" versus "Newton's laws".

Cultural relevance

Something has cultural relevance if it relates to our culture in some way, helping us connect CS topics to the rest of our lives and society. However, we have a diverse student body and may not share the same cultures. Thus, in a class of mixed cultures, there are several aspects to making content more culturally relevant:

  1. Check what culture your content currently assumes.
  2. Remove unneeded assumptions about cultural knowledge
  3. Diversify the cultural connections in the content

Step 1: Audit the default culture

Generally, the default culture in US content is White, European, Heterosexual, Male.

For example, 61A has many Shakespeare quotes in the textbook, lectures, and assignments. Shakespeare is certainly not the only poet in the world, and his poems don't make a ton of sense unless you've studied them. However, there's an assumption that everyone knows/likes Shakespeare if they're in the US.

Screenshot of a textbook chapter about Python that starts with a Shakespeare quote

Here's another example from a tutorial I made for Khan Academy, where I assumed that our mascot Winston would of course get married to a woman and have some kids. Now, as someone who's made the decision to not get married but am too nervous to tweet that in a marriage-normative society, I sure wish I had made a different choice!

Screenshot of a JS program that assigns a wife to a Winston object

Of course, lots of people do like Shakespeare and lots of men and women do get married, but it's too easy to write content in such a way that assumes that as the universal truth and does not make space for non-default culture.

If you audit your content to ask "what is the default culture?", you can be aware of what your content assumes and can then decide whether to reword or replace cultural references.

Step 2: Remove assumptions about shared cultural knowledge

It's fun to use cultural references when developing CS content, and it should be totally okay to bring in a cultural reference that's near and dear to you but may not be familiar to students from other cultures. However, when you do bring it in, be careful how you word it and be sure to provide any necessary context.

Consider these examples:

  • Magic 8-ball: I have a project on Khan Academy where students code a Magic 8-ball. I discovered that international learners struggled to complete the assignment, because they had never encountered a magic 8-ball toy. So I added an introductory sentence along with a graphic, and it was much easier for them.
  • Riffle shuffle: A 61A problem started with "The familiar riffle shuffle results in a deck of cards where…". Any sentence that starts with "the familiar" should raise flags, since familiarity is culturally dependent. I personally had never heard of it, and wasn't helped by the GIF that only showed the second half of the shuffle. I reworded to "A common way of shuffling cards is known as the riffle shuffle" and replaced the GIF with a video of the shuffle from start to finish.
  • Magic the Lambda-ing: This 61A problem assumed Magic experience in multiple ways, failing to explain how cards were drawn and using abbreviations like "stat" and "ATK". Generally, any non-course specific abbreviations should either be avoided or be explicitly defined. I revised the problem by adding clarifications, removing abbreviations, and adding a reference for students who wanted to learn more: "This game is inspired by the similarly named Magic: The Gathering."

Those were all fairly subtle rewords, but a subtle reword can turn a problem from one that alienates a student into one that introduces them to some new cool thing.

Step 3: Diversify the cultural references

If you have the means to authentically do so, you can now start to bring in more cultural references. A TA that loves cooking can bring in cooking examples, a TA that loves hair braiding can show how to make braids with loops. It's difficult and risky to bring in authentic cultural references from a culture that isn't experienced by any of the content creators. That's why it's important to have a diverse team, since each of your team members can make different cultural connections that might resonate with different students.

Here's a word cloud of interests from 61A students. Seeing the wide range of interests can inspire ideas for connecting content to student interests:

A word cloud of interests, like cooking, reading, video games, etc

One way to bring in culture that's relevant to your students is to get them to bring it in themselves!

  • In lectures, when live coding, you can ask students for examples, like "Okay, what are 5 song titles we can store in this array?"
  • In coding assignments, find ways for students to express themselves. For example, Khan Academy includes projects like drawing a dinner plate or making a recipes webpage, where students can show off their favorite foods. It is harder to evaluate the correctness and skill level of more open-ended projects, especially in massive courses. However, even if you can find small ways for students to customize their program output, it can increase their sense of ownership. (See this great research on creativity, customization, and ownership)

If your curriculum references historical figures (e.g. the inventor of an algorithm), they are very often white/male/European due to the bias of historical texts and a long history of patriarchy. See if you can find lesser known figures that also made contributions (a few examples here), or consider whether it's really necessary to emphasize the inventor (versus the invention).

Mirrors and windows

Another way to think about your content is to make sure it both offers mirrors (reflections of each student) and windows (views of other students), and gives equal weight to all the possible mirrors and windows.

Names. On Khan Academy, we use names in many word problems. To make sure we're not just picking the names that we personally know, we use a random name generator:

Three screenshots, two of word problems with names Hong Lien and Lakeisha, the third of a random name generator

Gender. Considering that gender is "a non-binary association of characteristics within the broad spectrum between masculinities and femininities," we should avoid encoding gender as binary in any content examples, like database tables, classes, or UI elements.

Consider instead a class like:

class Person() {

constructor(string name, []string gender, string pronoun) { = name;
        this.gender = gender;
        this.pronoun = pronoun;

new Person("Hunter", ["male"], "he");
new Person("Lee", ["female", "non-binary"], "they");
new Person("Emily", ["female"], "she");

Or a UI like:

A screenshot of a UI with a gender-picker that allows selection of multiple genders and offers a lot of possible genders

Pronouns.Similarly, refrain from relying on “he/him” as the default or assumed pronoun. Instead, be sure to use a natural, diverse selection of pronouns. I received bug reports for using "they" as the pronoun for a non-binary character in some AP CSP word problems on Khan Academy, but I kept "they" as I think/hope that people will become more accepting as their exposure to non-binary pronouns increases.

Sexual orientation. As discussed earlier, heterosexual is often the presumed default in our culture, but many people are homosexual, pansexual, asexual, etc. If you have content where it's appropriate to refer to people and their relationships, consider shining a light on the many kinds of relationships. We have a famous grammar problem on Khan Academy that brings in a ton of hate mail, but also brings in a lot of love mail from learners who have never before seen their relationships reflected in an educational website before! Here it is:

A fill-in-the blank problem with the sentence 'Brittany and Sofia went to lunch with their _ every Saturday' and options 'wifes' or 'wives'

Thursday, August 11, 2022

A browser-based runner for Faded Parsons Problems

A Parsons Problem is a kind of programming exercise where learners rearrange blocks of code in order to create functional programs, and has been shown by CS Ed researchers to be an effective way to learn code writing skills. One particularly helpful aspect is that students are re-creating an expert solution, versus writing sub-optimal or messy solutions, so they pick up better programming practices along the way. [See Barbara Ericson's dissertation for more details.]

However, one issue with Parsons Problems is that some learners may brute force the solution, trying all possible orders without thinking. Fortunately, UC Berkeley Ph.D. student Nate Weinman invented Faded Parsons Problems, a variant where the blocks sometimes have blanks in them, and learners must fill in the blanks after arranging the blocks. Learners are no longer able to brute force, but they still receive the other benefits of Parsons Problems. [See Weinman's CHI 2021 research paper for more details.]

While I was teaching CS61A at UC Berkeley, we experimented with integrating Faded Parsons Problems into our Python class assignments. To complete the problems, students ran a local Flask server on their own machine that sent data to our OKPy grading infrastructure. It seems to have been a positive addition to the course, though we discovered it was difficult for many students to run a local Flask server on their personal laptop. [A research paper is in the works with more details on what we learned.]

I wanted to try using Faded Parsons Problems in my upcoming Python course and to make it generally easier for any teacher to use them, so I've made a website that can run Faded Parsons Problems entirely in the browser (no backend). The website uses Pyodide to run the Python code and localStorage to remember learner progress.

The website checks the correctness of the learner's solution using Python doctests and displays pass/fail results. It also shows syntax errors, which can happen if they indent the blocks incorrectly or write something syntactically incorrect in the blanks.

The website is deployed on my Github pages currently, but it can be deployed on any static website hosting platform. If you're a Python teacher and would like to make up your own problems, you can learn more from the Github project README. Let me know if you end up using this in a class; I'd love to see your problems and hear how it goes.

If you teach a different language besides Python, it may be possible for you to get it working if there's a way to run that language in the browser. Forks or pull requests are welcome.

Tuesday, August 9, 2022

My bed-sharing setup

When I had my first baby, we struggled a lot with finding a sleep strategy that worked for both me and the baby. I talked about that journey in a blog post a few years ago, and how I ended up deciding to share a bed with my baby. I've now had another baby, and we're using the same bed-sharing approach again. Thanks to making the decision early on, I'm much better rested this time around.

Just like people share their office setups filled with geek gear, I'm going to share my bed-sharing setup. Maybe it'll help other breastfeeding mothers out there, or perhaps inspire someone to invent better gear!

Here's the sleeping setup:

Photo of floor mattress with sheets and pillows

Let's break down the sleeping components:

  • Floor mattress: 6" full-sized firm memory foam mattress. I bought the same one for baby #2, since baby #1 is still using it as a three year old. I figure these will be their mattresses for life, or at least their life in my house.
  • Slats: With my first baby, we had the mattress directly on the hardwood floor, and that led to black mold. I found some Korean-made slats on Etsy that fit the mattress size well enough and bought slats for both our mattresses. They're super low down so they don't make the mattress significantly higher (i.e. more dangerous in case of rolling), but hopefully they'll help prevent mold. Sadly, their Etsy shop is closed now, so you'd have to find similar ones or construct them yourself.
  • Bedsheets: You have to be super careful with bedsheets/blankets around babies, since they don't have the dexterity to move them away from their face. I wrap the sheet just around me, and often only use the blanket on the bottom half of my body. (Making milk keeps me pretty warm at night anyway, I often awake at 2AM in a sweat!)
  • Kindle: My favorite thing, both to help me fall asleep and to entertain me while nursing. I lean it against a pillow so that I don't have to hold it and can just flick it with whatever finger/limb is available.
  • Burp cloths: For late night spit ups. Yay.
  • Noise machine: The little elephant makes a heartbeat-like white noise. I'm not sure if it helps her, but it does help my partner to get less distracted by her little grunts and cries at night. We also have a humidifier in the room, as that's often recommended by doctors.
  • Alarm clock: I haven't set an alarm on it for years, but I do use it to make sure we haven't slept too long, since babies are supposed to nurse every 4 hours. Whenever I wake up, either due to my internal clock or her restlessness, I check the clock and decide if it's time to nurse.

So now let's talk about the nursing setup:

Photo of floor mattress with sheets and pillows in nursing position
  • Back support pillow: I lean against the wall while nursing, so this pillow makes that position more comfortable for me.
  • Boppy pillow: This is my favorite nursing pillow, and is the same model I use during the day.
  • Adjustable height pillow: I bought this to try as a nursing pillow (its intended use), but the form factor didn't work out that well for me. However, it's the perfect height/firmness to put under my knee when nursing, to elevate whichever side of the body my baby's nursing on.
  • Cooler: This stores an icepak and a Haakaa, a manual pump that works via suction only. I use the Haakaa to get extra milk out of whatever side my baby isn't nursing on, especially if she isn't eating much that night, and then I transfer the milk to a freezer bag in the morning. The Haakaa is an amazing invention, I still can't believe it works!
  • Nightlight: It helps to have a little light when positioning the baby. I also use my Kindle for additional illumination as needed.

That's my setup! I'd love to see more mothers sharing their gear. Let's nerd out on nursing! :D

Monday, August 8, 2022

Porting a project from spaces to tabs

I'm currently working on a JavaScript codebase that has some old crusty code, and I'm modernizing it in various ways, like upgrading to ES6 syntax and linting with ESLint. I also like to add in Prettier to every codebase, as an automated step, so that my code is always consistently formatted, and so that future pull requests from other developers can easily follow the same conventions.

But I had a dilemma: half my code was written with 2 space indents, the other half was written with 4 space indents, and I needed to tell Prettier what to use. What's a girl to do?? Well, I considered averaging it for nice 3-space indents everywhere (I kid, I kid), but I instead made a radical decision: just use tabs! I'd heard that Prettier is considering making tabs the default anyway, and after reading the many comments on their PR thread, I became convinced that tabs are better than spaces, at least for an autoformatted project.

Since my projects and editors have used spaces forever, there were a few things I needed to do in order to smoothly move over to tabs. Here's the steps I took:

  • Reformat files to use tabs. To change all my current files to tabs, I used Prettier. First I configured it by specifying "useTabs" in my .prettierrc.json:

    	"useTabs": true

    Then I ran the prettier command on all my JS/JSON files:

    prettier \"**/*.{js,json}\" --ignore-path ./.eslintignore --write
  • Ignore the reformat commit in git blame. I really hate when reformatting commits make it harder to use git blame to track logical changes, so I was thrilled to discover that there's a way for Git/Github to ignore particular revisions while blaming. I followed this blog post, adding a .git-blame-ignore-revs with my most recent commit:

    # Reformat js/json with Prettier, spaces to tabs

    Then I ran a command to tell my local git to ignore the revision:
    git config blame.ignoreRevsFile .git-blame-ignore-revs

    Once I pushed the commit with that file, I saw that Github does indeed ignore changes from that commit when I use the blame feature. So cool! Screenshot from Github blame UI

  • Make Github render tabs using 4 spaces.For whatever reason, Github defaults to 8 spaces for tabs, and that is too dang much. To make Github render the tabs in my projects with just 4 spaces, I added an .editorconfig file to my project:

    root = true
    indent_style = tab
    indent_size = 4

    Github also allows users to customize tabs across all project repositories, and that user setting takes precedence over the per-project .editorconfig setting. That's likely for accessibility reasons, since some folks might require a large number of spaces for better readability. To change my account preference, I opened up Settings > Appearance and selected my desired number of spaces:

    Screenshot of Github settings

    So, if I visit my project in an incognito window, Github will render the tabs with 4 spaces, but if I visit the project from my logged in browser, Github will render the tab with 2 spaces.

  • Make VS Code insert tabs when I tab. VS Code tries to adjust its indentation style with autodetection based on the current file, but I wanted to make sure it always inserted a tab in new files in my project, too. It defaults to inserting spaces when it isn't sure, so I needed to explicitly override that setting. I could have changed the setting across all projects, but most of my other projects use spaces, so I instead figured out how to change it in just this project for now.

    To change it, I opened up Settings > Workspace, searched for "insert spaces", and un-checked the "Editor: Insert spaces" setting. That created a .vscode/settings.json file with an "editor.insertSpaces" property:

    	"editor.insertSpaces": false

    Another option for VS Code is to use a VS Code plugin that understands .editorconfig files. If you go that route, you don't need to finagle with the VS Code settings yourself.

Friday, July 22, 2022

Tips for planting milkweeds in the Bay area

Since the recent article about the endangerment of Monarch butterflies, a lot of people are interested in planting milkweeds for Monarch caterpillars. I've been doing that for the last few years in my garden in the east bay in California, so I thought I'd share my personal tips.

Milkweed species: Narrow-Leaf

There are many species of milkweed, but not all of them are native to California, and non-native milkweeds are associated with issues like disease and disrupting natural butterfly cycles. The two most commonly sold native milkweeds in CA are the Narrow-leaf milkweed and the Showy milkweed. I have planted both, and based on my observation of caterpillar behavior, I highly recommend the Narrow-leaf. My caterpillars will only eat the Showy as an absolute last resort, and sometimes not even then. They are ravenous for Narrow-leaf, however.

Where to buy

You can use to find local nurseries that sell narrow-leaf milkweed. Before you go to the nursery in person, check their website or give them a call to see if it's currently in stock. 

You can often get Narrow-leaf from a generic nursery that sells both native and non-native plants, but some of the generic nurseries spray their plants with insecticide or use soil with insecticides - no good! If you instead go to native nurseries, that shouldn't be an issue (but you should double check just in case). My favorite native nurseries are Oaktown Native and Watershed.

You can also grow it from seed fairly easily. My favorite native seed source is Larner Seeds. It will take some time for the plant to grow large, and small plants may get overwhelmed early by caterpillars, but I've found that even the small plants can bounce back after being devoured. 

Planting wildflowers

There are two reasons to plant native wildflowers near the milkweed: 1) munchies for the adult butterflies 2) familiar places for the caterpillars to pupate. We happened to plant a Salvia Clevelandii near our milkweed, and that's where a caterpillar happily pupated. 

Once again, I recommend purchasing native wildflowers either from local native-specializing nurseries or from seed. Use to make sure that a particular plant is actually native to your area.

Moving the caterpillars

I will often find that a caterpillar will have completely decimated milkweed in one part of my garden (since my milkweed are still quite small). In that case, I often move the caterpillar to a more milkweed-y part of the garden. To safely transport, I make sure that they're actively moving (i.e. not in a delicate phase of changing instars), snip off the milkweed segment with scissors, and place that segment near the new milkweed. Sometimes I even bring them to the neighbors' milkweed if we're all out.

Where do they pupate?

This is still my top question as a Monarch-raiser, as I love to watch the metamorphosis but can rarely find a chrysalis. In my garden, the only chrysalis I located was on our Salvia. 

Here's the butterfly that emerged from the chrysalis on the Salvia (and video of their  first flight):

For my neighbor's garden, they love to pupate on the underside of the top of their fence. 

It's important that wherever they pupate, they have enough room for their wings to unfold and dry out. I'm curious to hear where other Monarchs pupate; let me know what you've seen!

Wednesday, July 20, 2022

Line highlighting extension for Code Mirror 6

A little background: Dis This is my online tool for viewing the disassembled bytecode of Python snippets. I started it off with a simple text editor, but I wanted to upgrade it to a nice code editor with line numbers and syntax highlighting.

The most commonly used online code editor libraries are Monaco, CodeMirror, and ACE. I believe Monaco is the most full featured and accessible, but I opted to try CodeMirror for this project as I don’t need as many features. (I avoided ACE since its what we used for the Khan Academy coding environment, and we found it fairly buggy).

CodeMirror recently released a new version, v6, and its quite different architecturally from previous versions.

One of those differences is that the library can only be loaded as a module and cannot be loaded via CDN, so my first task was adding module bundling via rollup.

Once I got rollup running, it was fairly straightforward to get a basic editor working:

import {basicSetup} from 'codemirror';
import {EditorState} from '@codemirror/state';
import {python} from '@codemirror/lang-python';
import {EditorView} from '@codemirror/view';

const editorView = new EditorView({
    state: EditorState.create({
        doc: code,
        extensions: [basicSetup, python()],
    parent: document.getElementById(“editor”),

But now I wanted a new feature: bi-directional line highlighting. Whenever a user highlighted a line in the editor, it should highlight relevant rows in the bytecode table, and vice versa. The end goal:

To try to understand CodeMirror's new approach to extensibility, I did a lot of reading in the docs: Migration Guide, System Guide, Decorations, Zebra Stripes, etc. Here's the code I came up with.

First I make a Decoration of the line variety:

const lineHighlightMark = Decoration.line({
  attributes: {style: 'background-color: yellow'}

Then I define a StateEffect:

const addLineHighlight = StateEffect.define();

Tying those together, I define a StateField. When the field receives an addLineHighlight effect, it clears existing decorations and adds the line decoration to the desired line:

const lineHighlightField = StateField.define({
  create() {
    return Decoration.none;
  update(lines, tr) {
    lines =;
    for (let e of tr.effects) {
      if ( {
        lines = Decoration.none;
        lines = lines.update({add: [lineHighlightMark.range(e.value)]});
    return lines;
  provide: (f) => EditorView.decorations.from(f),

To be able to use that effect, I add it to the list of extensions in the original editor constructor:

extensions: [basicSetup, python(), lineHighlightField],

Now I need to setup each direction of line highlighting. To enable highlighting when a user moves their mouse over the code editor, I add an event listener which converts the mouse position to a line number, converts the line number to a “document position”, then dispatches the addLineHighlight effect:

editorView.dom.addEventListener('mousemove', (event) => {
    const lastMove = {
        x: event.clientX,
        y: event.clientY,
    const pos = this.editorView.posAtCoords(lastMove);
    let lineNo = this.editorView.state.doc.lineAt(pos).number;
    const docPosition = this.editorView.state.doc.line(lineNo).from;
    this.editorView.dispatch({effects: addLineHighlight.of(docPosition)});

To enable highlighting when the user mouses over rows in the corresponding HTML table, I call a function that converts the line number to a document position and dispatches the effect (same as the last two lines of the previous code).

function highlightLine(lineNo) {
    const docPosition = this.editorView.state.doc.line(lineNo).from;
    this.editorView.dispatch({effects: addLineHighlight.of(docPosition)});

For ease of use, I wrap all that code into a HighlightableEditor class:

editor = new HighlightableEditor(codeDiv, code});

Check out the full highlightable-editor.js code on Github.

Wednesday, July 13, 2022

Inactivity timer for Chrome extensions

My Quiz Cards browser extensions are interactive flash cards, giving users a way to practice their Spanish, German, US Capitals, and World Capitals, by simply clicking an icon on their browser.

Screenshot of Quiz Cards popup asking a spanish word

One of the Quiz Cards features is updating the browser icon with a little number to indicate how many days have passed since the last time you answered a card. 

When I upgraded the extension to manifest v3, I found I also needed to update that feature.

How it worked in manifest v2: whenever a user answered a question, the extension stored a timestamp in localStorage. The background script used setInterval to call a function every so often to see how many days passed since that timestamp, and if more than 0, it updated the badge with the number of days.

When using manifest v3, background pages are actually service workers. Using setInterval will no longer work reliably, since the browser stops and starts service workers when not in use. Instead, Chrome recommends using their alarms API instead. They also suggest using their storage API instead of localStorage.

So, in the flash card pop up, I run this code when a user answers a card:{'last-asked': (new Date()).getTime())

chrome.action.setBadgeText({text: ''});

That stores the latest timestamp in storage and clears out any number that might have been previously set on the badge.

In the background service worker, I set an alarm to call a function every 60 minutes. That function retrieves the timestamp from storage, compares it to the current time, and updates the badge number if relevant.

async function sync() {

    const result = await['last-asked']);

    const lastAsked = result[key];

    if (lastAsked) {

      const rightNow = (new Date()).getTime();

      const timeDiff = (rightNow - lastAsked);

      const DAY_MS = 86400000;

      if (timeDiff > DAY_MS) {

         chrome.action.setBadgeBackgroundColor({color:[0, 0, 0, 255]});

         const numDays = Math.floor(timeDiff/DAY_MS);

         chrome.action.setBadgeText({text: numDays + ''});




// Once an hour, check if it's been too long


chrome.alarms.create('check-inactivity', {periodInMinutes: 60});


And that's it! I figure this may be a common use case for the alarms API, so I'm hoping this post helps anyone looking to implement a similar feature.

Sunday, July 10, 2022

Diversifying historical references in CS classes

 A few years ago, I discovered #DisruptTexts, a movement by teachers to challenge the traditional canon in English classes, i.e. spending less time on Shakespeare and more time on historically underrepresented authors.

I teach programming, not English lit, but I still wondered if there were opportunities in my curriculum to shift emphasis away from white male “authors” to people from other cultures. I realized that there are a few standard spots in programming courses that reference the inventor of some algorithm or concept, and that inventor is typically a white male. However, as a general rule, many "inventions" actually get invented by multiple people, and history books try to simplify it down to a single origin story. So, each time I found a reference to an inventor in my curriculum, I researched the web to find any additional inventors.

Here’s what I found for the topics I taught last year:

Fibonacci → Virahanka

When teaching iteration or recursion, I often show how to calculate the numeric sequence where each number is the sum of the two numbers before (1,1,2,3,5,8,13,…). 

The sequence is typically named after Fibonacci, an Italian mathematician from the middle ages who encountered it while modeling the reproduction of rabbits. 

Slide on Fibonacci's study of rabbit reproduction

As it turns out, a Sanskrit grammarian named Virahanka discovered the same sequence many centuries before, while modeling the syllabic structure of Sanskrit poetry. 

Slide on Virahanka's study of Sanskrit poetry

I love when programming and linguistics overlap, so i was fascinated to learn about Virahanka's sequence. To acknowledge the earlier discovery, I added slides on Virahanka and renamed the fib functions in CS61A to virfib.

def virfib(n):
  if n == 0:
    return 0
  if n == 1:
    return 1
    return virfib(n - 1) + virfib(n - 2)

Backus-Naur → Panini-Backus

Backus-Naur Form is a notation for describing the rules of a language’s grammar (as long as it is context-free). IBM engineer Peter Backus invented the notation in the 1950s to describe the grammar of Algol programming language:

Screenshot of section on syntax of for statements from ALGOL report

BNF is still used today to describe the grammar of modern programming languages. For example, the SQLite syntax reference uses railroad diagrams, a visualization of BNF grammar rules:

Screenshot of DELETE reference for SQLite

I was amazed to discover that this recent “invention” also has a much earlier origin story from the study of Sanskrit. Around 500 BCE, a grammarian named Panini used a formal notation to describe Sanskrit, and that system was very similar to what Backus created in the 50s. I won't share the Sanskrit rules since I don't read Sanskrit and can't be sure of what I'm sharing. However, here's a grammar diagram from a Sanskrit teacher:

Grammar diagram for Sanskrit

As you can see, the construction of a word in Sanskrit follows similar flows as the construction of a DELETE statement in SQLite. There are elements that can be repeated, elements that must be at the beginning or the end,  recursive elements, etc. Those are the sorts of requirements that could be described both by Panini's 500 BCE notation or by Backus' 1950s' notation. 

For that reason, some propose renaming BNF to Panini-Backus form. I did not end up doing that when I taught BNF, since we were also teaching EBNF and I wasn’t prepared to also rename that. However, I do mention its much earlier invention in India when lecturing in class.

George *and* Mary Boole

One of the most foundational concepts in programming is logic, the way we can combine true/false expressions using AND/OR/NOT/etc, and yield a true/false result. That’s called Boolean logic, named after the English logician George Boole who described the system in the 1854 book, The Laws of Thought.

George Boole was married to another mathematician, Mary Everest, who also wrote books on math, despite living at a time when women weren’t welcomed in academics. Mary is known to have contributed heavily to the editing of George’s book and was a loud proponent of its ideas after George’s early death. I am certain that many inventions of married men throughout history were helped significantly by their significant others but not attributed to them. How many women and non-binary inventors would we know about today if history wasn't so rife with patriarchal systems?

Fortunately, we know about Mary’s contributions. Heres how I describe it in my co:rise Python course:

Booleans are named after George Boole, a self-taught logician. He described a system of logic in an 1854 book, The Laws of Thought, that was edited by his wife Mary Everest Boole, another self-taught logician. According to Mary, George was inspired by Indian logic systems dating back to 500 BCE. We can actually find the origins of many "modern" computer science concepts in ancient systems of India, Africa, or the Mediterranean.

And look, another reference to Indian scholars from thousands of years ago! It makes me wonder how many times logic was independently invented across the world.

Those are the places I found so far where I could diversify the historical mentions. Unfortunately, most inventors are still male and from the upper class of society, since we history rarely hear from oppressed genders and classes. 

I’d love to know if other CS teachers have discovered ways to #DisruptTexts in your CS classrooms.